Urologists refer to cystitis – inflammation of the mucous membrane of a bladder – as the most widespread disease of the urinal system.

Cystitis in men appears along with benign prostatic hyperplasia, in cases of narrowing of the urinal tract or bladder stones as a result of the incomplete empting of the bladder.

When urine is retained processes like precipitation, crystallisation appears and they are opportunity for inflammations.

Cystitis in women is often met disease. About 20% of women have a kind of cystitis and 10% have chronic cystitis.

Cystitis symptoms include:

  • Pressure in the lower pelvis
  • Waist pain
  • Frequent need to urinate
  • Painful urination
  • Urine flow is on small ‘portions’
  • Burning in vagina
  • Blood in the urine at the end of the urination.

If these symptoms have appeared don’t postpone your meeting with a specialist and he will appoint the appropriate treatment.

In 80% of the cases cystitis is provoked by bacteria found in the intestines and it is transferred to the bladder upwards from the urethra. This is because of the anatomic female structure of the urinary system.

  • The shorter (2-5 sm)  and wider female urethra is good provider of microorganisms;
  • Right next to the urethra is the vagina and the colon – full of microorganisms.
  • The lack of good hygiene during sex is also a possibility microbes to reach the urethra and then the bladder;
  • Microorganisms can pass into the bladder through blood or lymph also from chronic inflammatory focuses;
  • Microbes can also appear into the bladder downwards from the liver.

Abortion or complicated delivery can also be a cause for its appearance. Sometimes illnesses like flu, tonsillitis, haemorrhoids, furuncle are complicated with the development of cystitis as bacteria appear into the bladder through the blood. Cystitis may also appear on allergenic basis and may be caused by toxic and non infectional components but it is rarely found. Even parasites and fungi can cause cystitis. In patients with immune disorders it is met more often.

The slow blood flow in the wall of the bladder and the pelvis caused by immobility, tight clothes helps the development of the inflammation.

The diagnose cystitis is made by  cystoscopic examination and urine analysis.  Albumen, leucocites, erythrocites, bacteria are found in the urine.


General methods of examination: clinical, biochemical analysis of the blood; general analysis of the urine.

Special methods of examination:

  • Urine culture (to determine the cause of the inflammation).
  • Uroflowmetry – dynamic examination of the act of urination.
  • Sonography of the liver and the bladder.
  • Gynaecologic examination, cystoscopy.

The above mentioned diagnostic examinations enable the determination of the inflammatory process in the bladder and other illnesses to be excluded amongst which special attention should be paid to the hypermobility of the urethra (increased mobility).

Forms of cystitis

Acute cystitis lasts 1-2 weeks. The treatment of acute cystitis is most often done at home.  The mucous membrane of the bladder will fully recover in 3-4 days when properly and accurately treated.

The cystitis treatment includes a special diet that excludes piquant food and drinking a lot of liquids. Antibacterial, spasmolytic and pain relievers are applied also. Cystitis is an illness which treatment is obligatory done only by a specialist and self treatment is inadmissible.

Patients are hospitalised only in cases of complicated forms of cystitis.

The improper and inaccurate treatment of cystitis causes the chronic form of the illness. The treatment of the chronic cystitis is more difficult process and that’s why it should be provided by a competent person. There is a number of modern theories about the appearance of the chronic cystitis, disorders in the local immune system and mucous secretion function and local nerve factors that make the mucous more vulnerable, with higher permeability that allows the penetration of substances and urine between the cells, etc. It is effective when persistently and complexly treated and when the predisposing factors are treated also – stones in the bladder, inflammatory focuses of a downward infection.

After a bacteriological examination for sensitiveness of the microflora to antibiotics the treatment is prescribed. The respective antibacterial medicines are prescribed as well as bladder lavage. The modern combined treatments including non invasive phytocombinations allowing longer treatment and better control of the inflammatory process are especially modern and effective.

Cystitis prevention

Elimination of factors like chronic stress, insufficient sleep, over cooling.

Diet correction – increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, exclusion of piquant, fat, fried and smoked food. When these are secreted with the urine some of their components irritate the mucous of the bladder thus increasing the inflammation process.

Consumption of at least 2-2,5 litres of liquids daily.

Regular urination, hygiene of the sex life.

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